13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long term studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of hydromorphone have not been conducted.
Hydromorphone was positive in the mouse lymphoma assay in the presence of metabolic activation, but was negative in the mouse lymphoma assay in the absence of metabolic activation. Hydromorphone was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). Hydromorphone was not clastogenic in either the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
Impairment of Fertility
Reduced implantation sites and viable fetuses were noted at 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day in a study in which female rats were treated orally with 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times a human daily dose of 24 mg/day (HDD) based on body surface area) beginning 14 days prior to mating through Gestation Day 7 and male rats were treated with the same hydromorphone hydrochloride doses beginning 28 days prior to and throughout mating.