5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties
Pharmacotherapeutic group: vaccines, other viral vaccines, ATC code: J07BX03
Mechanism of action
The nucleoside-modified messenger RNA in Comirnaty is formulated in lipid nanoparticles, which enable delivery of the non replicating RNA into host cells to direct transient expression of the SARS‑CoV-2 S antigen. The mRNA codes for membrane-anchored, full-length S with two point mutations within the central helix. Mutation of these two amino acids to proline locks S in an antigenically preferred prefusion conformation. The vaccine elicits both neutralizing antibody and cellular immune responses to the spike (S) antigen, which may contribute to protection against COVID-19.
Study 2 is a multicentre, multinational, Phase 1/2/3 randomised, placebo-controlled, observer-blind dose-finding, vaccine candidate selection and efficacy study in participants 12 years of age and older. Randomisation was stratified by age: 12 through 15 years of age, 16 through 55 years of age, or 56 years of age and older, with a minimum of 40% of participants in the ≥ 56-year stratum. The study excluded participants who were immunocompromised and those who had previous clinical or microbiological diagnosis of COVID-19. Participants with pre-existing stable disease, defined as disease not requiring significant change in therapy or hospitalization for worsening disease during the 6 weeks before enrolment, were included as were participants with known stable infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV).
Efficacy in participants 16 years of age and older
In the Phase 2/3 portion of Study 2, based on data accrued through 14 November 2020, approximately 44,000 participants were randomised equally and were to receive 2 doses of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine or placebo separated by 21 days. The efficacy analyses included participants that received their second vaccination within 19 to 42 days after their first vaccination. The majority (93.1%) of vaccine recipients received the second dose 19 days to 23 days after Dose 1. Participants are planned to be followed for up to 24 months after Dose 2, for assessments of safety and efficacy against COVID-19. In the clinical study, participants were required to observe a minimum interval of 14 days before and after administration of an influenza vaccine in order to receive either placebo or COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine. In the clinical study, participants were required to observe a minimum interval of 60 days before or after receipt of blood/plasma products or immunoglobulins within through conclusion of the study in order to receive either placebo or COVID‑19 mRNA Vaccine.
The population for the analysis of the primary efficacy endpoint included, 36,621 participants 12 years of age and older (18,242 in the COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine group and 18,379 in the placebo group) who did not have evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 through 7 days after the second dose. In addition, 134 participants were between the ages of 16 to 17 years of age (66 in the COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine group and 68 in the placebo group) and 1,616 participants 75 years of age and older (804 in the COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine group and 812 in the placebo group).
At the time of the primary efficacy analysis, participants had been followed for symptomatic COVID‑19 for in total 2,214 person‑years for the COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine and in total 2,222 person‑years in the placebo group.
There were no meaningful clinical differences in overall vaccine efficacy in participants who were at risk of severe COVID-19 including those with 1 or more comorbidities that increase the risk of severe COVID-19 (e.g. asthma, body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, chronic pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension).
The vaccine efficacy information is presented in Table 2.
First COVID-19 occurrence from 7 days after Dose 2 in participants without evidence of prior SARS‑CoV-2 infection*
COVID‑19 mRNA Vaccine
Na = 18,325
95.0 (90.0, 97.9)
16 to 64 years
95.1 (89.6, 98.1)
65 years and older
94.7 (66.7, 99.9)
65 to 74 years
92.9 (53.1, 99.8)
75 years and older
100.0 (-13.1, 100.0)
Efficacy of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine in preventing first COVID-19 occurrence from 7 days after Dose 2 compared to placebo was 94.6% (95% confidence interval of 89.6% to 97.6%) in participants 16 years of age and older with or without evidence of prior infection with SARS-CoV-2.
Additionally, subgroup analyses of the primary efficacy endpoint showed similar efficacy point estimates across genders, ethnic groups, and participants with medical comorbidities associated with high risk of severe COVID-19.
Efficacy and immunogenicity in adolescents 12 to 15 years of age
In an analysis of Study 2 in adolescents 12 to 15 years of age without evidence of prior infection, there were no cases in 1005 participants who received the vaccine and 16 cases out of 978 who received placebo. The point estimate for efficacy is 100% (95% confidence interval 75.3, 100.0). In participants with or without evidence of prior infection there were 0 cases in the 1119 who received vaccine and 18 cases in 1110 participants who received placebo. This also indicates the point estimate for efficacy is 100% (95% confidence interval 78.1, 100.0).
In Study 2, an analysis of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising titres 1 month after Dose 2 was conducted in a randomly selected subset of participants who had no serological or virological evidence of past SARSCoV-2 infection up to 1 month after Dose 2, comparing the response in adolescents 12 to 15 years of age (n = 190) to participants 16 to 25 years of age (n = 170).
The ratio of the geometric mean titres (GMT) in the 12 to 15 years of age group to the 16 to 25 years of age group was 1.76, with a 2sided 95% CI of 1.47 to 2.10. Therefore, the 1.5fold noninferiority criterion was met as the lower bound of the 2sided 95% CI for the geometric mean ratio [GMR] was > 0.67.
The European Medicines Agency has deferred the obligation to submit the results of studies with Comirnaty in the paediatric population in prevention of COVID-19 (see section 4.2 for information on paediatric use).
This medicinal product has been authorised under a so-called ‘conditional approval’ scheme. This means that further evidence on this medicinal product is awaited. The European Medicines Agency will review new information on this medicinal product at least every year and this SmPC will be updated as necessary.
5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties
5.3 Preclinical safety data
Non-clinical data reveal no special hazard for humans based on conventional studies of repeat dose toxicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity.
Rats intramuscularly administered Comirnaty (receiving 3 full human doses once weekly, generating relatively higher levels in rats due to body weight differences) demonstrated some injection site oedema and erythema and increases in white blood cells (including basophils and eosinophils) consistent with an inflammatory response as well as vacuolation of portal hepatocytes without evidence of liver injury. All effects were reversible.
Neither genotoxicity nor carcinogenicity studies were performed. The components of the vaccine (lipids and mRNA) are not expected to have genotoxic potential.
Reproductive and developmental toxicity were investigated in rats in a combined fertility and developmental toxicity study where female rats were intramuscularly administered Comirnaty prior to mating and during gestation (receiving 4 full human doses that generate relatively higher levels in rat due to body weight differences, spanning between pre-mating day 21 and gestational day 20). SARS‑CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses were present in maternal animals from prior to mating to the end of the study on postnatal day 21 as well as in foetuses and offspring. There were no vaccine‑related effects on female fertility, pregnancy, or embryo-foetal or offspring development. No Comirnaty data are available on vaccine placental transfer or excretion in milk.